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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
April-June 2022
Volume 27 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 47-78

Online since Saturday, March 26, 2022

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EDITORIALS / ÉDITORIAUX  

Wave theory of rural medicine p. 47
Peter Hutten-Czapski
DOI:10.4103/cjrm.cjrm_5_22  
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Théorie de la vague en médecine rurale p. 48
Peter Hutten-Czapski
DOI:10.4103/1203-7796.341027  
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President's message. A reflection p. 49
Gabe Woollam
DOI:10.4103/cjrm.cjrm_7_22  
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Message du president. Une réflexion p. 50
Gabe Woollam
DOI:10.4103/1203-7796.341029  
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES / ARTICLES ORIGINAUX Top

Motor vehicle collision-related injuries and deaths among Indigenous Peoples in Canada: Meta-analysis of geo-structural factors p. 51
Naomi G Williams, Kevin M Gorey, Amy M Alberton
DOI:10.4103/cjrm.cjrm_42_21  
Introduction: Indigenous Peoples are much more likely than non-Indigenous Peoples to be seriously injured or die in motor vehicle collisions (MVCs). This study updates and extends a previous systematic review, suggesting that future research ought to incorporate social–environmental factors. Methods: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the published and grey literature on MVCs involving Indigenous Peoples in Canada between 2010 and 2020. We focussed on personal (e.g. driving an old vehicle) and community social–environmental–economic factors (e.g. prevalent low socioeconomic status). Results: Eleven comparative cohorts that resulted in 23 at minimum, age-standardised, mortality or morbidity rate outcomes were included in our meta-analysis. Indigenous Peoples were twice as likely as non-Indigenous Peoples to be seriously injured (rate ratio [RRpooled] = 2.18) and more than 3 times as likely to die (RRpooled = 3.40) in MVCs. Such great risks to Indigenous Peoples do not seem to have diminished over the past generation. Furthermore, such risks were greater on-reserves and in smaller, rural and remote, places. Conclusion: Such places may lack community resources, including fewer transportation and healthcare infrastructural investments, resulting in poorer road conditions in Indigenous communities and longer delays to trauma care. This seems to add further evidence of geo-structural violence (geographical and institutional violence) perpetrated against Indigenous Peoples in yet more structures (i.e. institutions) of Canadian society. Canada's system of highways and roadways and its remote health-care system represent legitimate policy targets in aiming to solve this public health problem.
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Northern Ontario's Obstetrical Services in 2020: A developing rural maternity care desert p. 61
Eliseo Orrantia, Peter Hutten-Czapski, Mathieu Mercier, Samarth Fageria
DOI:10.4103/cjrm.cjrm_4_21  
Introduction: Rural maternity care services matter. Obstetrical care in rural Canada has seen concerning trends of service closures and decreasing numbers of family physicians who predominantly provide this service. Such reductions have been shown to have a serious impact on maternal/foetal well-being. Methods: This study investigated the present state of obstetrical services in Northern Ontario, comparing results to those of the last similar survey in 1999. All 40 Northern Ontario communities with hospitals were surveyed, as were the 16 midwife practices in the region. Results: Of the 35 rural and 5 urban hospitals surveyed, the number not offering obstetrical care has risen from 37.5% in 1999 to 60% in 2020, with all the closures having been rural sites. There have been no re-openings of obstetrics in hospitals that did not offer obstetrics in 1999. Women in the 9 communities that had offered maternity services in 1999, but no longer do in 2020, now travel an average of over 1.5 h to access these services. In those communities that continue obstetrics, but stopped offering caesarean sections, women now travel 2.5 h for this surgery. Although the total number of general physicians remains at the 1999 level, the number offering intrapartum care has dropped by 65% in urban centres and by 49% in rural ones still providing maternity care. Conclusions: Like much of the rural United States, rural Northern Ontario is well on its way to becoming a maternity care desert. As proven in Southern Australia, supportive government policies and programmes should be established and education reform enacted to reverse this concerning trend.
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CASE REPORT Top

Pathological fractures leading to the incidental diagnosis of rickets p. 69
Mohammed Abrahim
DOI:10.4103/cjrm.cjrm_18_21  
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PROCEDURAL ARTICLE Top

The occasional cervical biopsy p. 72
Julia Robson, Cara van der Merwe, Leslea Walters, Laura Noack, Sarah M Giles
DOI:10.4103/cjrm.cjrm_13_21  
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PODIUM Top

Why COVID-19 could be a boon for rural patient transfers p. 77
Carolyn Ruth Wilson
DOI:10.4103/cjrm.cjrm_71_21  
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